Thursday, May 1, 2014

Persian calligraphy

 Persian calligraphy is the calligraphy of persian writing system and it is one of the most unique things in persian cultures that separates it from others.

In the ancient Persia and in the different historic eras, languages such as “Ilami”, “Avestaaee”, “Pahlavi”, and “Farsi-e-Mianeh” were spoken. It is believed that ancient Persian script was invented by about 500-600 BC to provide monument inscriptions for the Achaemenid kings. These scripts consisted of horizontal, vertical, and diagonal nail-shaped letters and that is the reason in Persian it is called “Script of Nails” or “Khat-e-Mikhi”, or cuneiform as it is known in English.

Avestaaee script was written with a feather pen, usually on animal-skin pages. It is surprising that this script has similarities with Arabic scripts such as “Sols” and “Naskh” that centuries later were invented. However, unlike these scripts, letters in Avestaaee were not connected to each other to form a word but they just were written separately next to each other (similar to Latin scripts). However it wrote from right to left

After the attack of Arabs to Persia, Iranians were forced to learn study and write in arabic which is a language containing 28 alphabet letters and persians added 4 letters to it ("g","ch","p"."zh") and made the persian alphabet. Around one thousand years ago, Ibn Muqlah and his brother created six genres of Iranian calligraphy, namely "Tahqiq", "Reyhan", "Sols", "Naskh", "Toqi" and "Reqa". These genres were common for four centuries in Persia. 
Koofi font

In the 14th century, "Mir Ali Tabrizi" combined two major scripts of his time i.e. Naskh and Taliq and created the most attractive Persian Calligraphy style, "Nas’taliq".
 In past 500 years Iranian calligraphy called Nastaʿlī one of the main script styles used in writing the Perso-Arabic script, and traditionally the predominant style in Persian calligraphy.

What makes Nastaliq unique is that unlike its ancestors, Nastaliq follows natural curves. In other words, unlike Arabic scripts that follow logical/geometrical designs, Nastaliq follows the nature and natural curves. There are a lot of resemblances found between the curves used in Nastaliq and natural curves and that makes it harder to learn.

Saturday, April 5, 2014

Persian Poetry (Part two)

When studying the persian poetry it is important to know the different types of it. There are seven main types of persian Poetries; Masnavi, Ghazal, Ghaside, Robayi, Chahar pare, Modern, Ghatee, Tarji Band. In this blog post I am going to compare the structure of each on and give example of each of them.
Masnavi is a type of structure which is usually used when the poem wants to write a long poet, in Masnavi there must be a rhyme after each Half verse . And every pair of half verse should only have a rhyme with its half the look of it would be

c--------------------   c ----------------------

b--------------------   b-----------------------

a---------------------   a-----------------------

examples of Masnavi are Shahname, Masnavi-Manavi, Boostan Saadi, Jami, Nezami, Mosibat Name are some of the greatest Masnavis ever written.

Ghazal is the structure Mostly used for Love Poets which has a limit and it should not go over than 17 verse and the minimum is seven. the rhyme is at the first half verse and the end of all the full verses so it would look like:

c---------------------    c------------------------
c----------------------    b----------------------
c----------------------    h-----------------------

Some of the Greatest Ghazal Poems are; Hafez, Sadii, Saeb Tabrizi. One thing that always is mentioned in Ghazal is wine and how being drunk effects the way love feels.

The real revival of Persian letters came in the early twentieth century, when the growing desire for reform inspired numerous satires. One of the most outstanding figures of this period was Iraj Mirza (died 1926), a poet of great talent and champion of the emancipation of women. Other noted poets were Adib, Bahar, Lahuti, Shahryar, Aref and the poetess Parvin E'tesami. Poets of more recent decades include Nima Yoshij, Ra'di, Khanlari, Islami, Gulchin, Ahmad ShamlouMehdi Akhavan Sales, Mas'ud Farzad, Sohrab Sepehri, Fereidoon Moshiri and the poetess Forough Farrokhzad. Some of these poets have introduced verse forms new to Persian literature. Here should not be forgotten the great works of Sadeq HedayatSamad BehrangiSadeq Choubak and many others who enriched the persian literature. 

Thursday, March 27, 2014

Persian Poetry(Part one)

Persian, also known as Iranian or its Original name Farsi is a language spoken by People of Iran and some of the countries which were part of Persian empire such as Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and some part of Iraq, Azerbaijan, Kuwait, Pakistan and Bahrain. Persian is a language known for its historical literature and Poetry, this language is sometimes referred to language of Similes and metaphors.

First Persian known poet, Rudaki lived from 858 - ca. to 941-ca which makes Persian one of the oldest literature's in the world. Some know Persian poetry the savior of the great history and culture of Persia, After the attack of Alexander to Hakhamaneshi Empire, Mongol's and Arabs attack to Iran libraries were burned and in some part of country people were forced to study in a different language. If you take a culture away from its people you are taking their identity away; for years Persian poet were known by heart and thought from generation to generation until Iranian took over their country and had their own government.

during the age of Sasanian empire which was a persian government arabs attack Iran and took over the country, they burned libraries and forced people to talk and study arabic at this time Ferdosi which is one of the greatest Persian Poets Wrote a book named "Shahname" which means the story of the king which is telling stories about the legends and history of persian Empire and how people of Iran stand against  others for their freedom.

Shahname is consist about 50,000 versus and it is one of the most unique poetries in its kind, but one thing that is very special about shah name is that there is no word from any other language and it is all made up from persian words. Some believe Shahname is one of the greatest factor that there are people who still speak Persian despite the fact that it has been forced to be destroyed as a language by many Foreign Governors of Iran. Ferdowsi did not expect his readers to pass over historical events indifferently, but asked them to think carefully, to see the grounds for the rise and fall of individuals and nations; and to learn from the past in order to improve the present, and to better shape the future. Ferdowsi stresses his belief that since the world is transient, and since everyone is merely a passerby, one is wise to avoid cruelty, lying, avarice, and other evils; instead one should strive for justice, honor, truth, order, and other virtues.
The singular message that the Shahnameh of Ferdowsi strives to convey is the idea that the history of the Sassanid Empire was a complete and immutable whole: it started with Keyumars, the first man, and ended with his fiftieth scion and successor,Yazdegerd III, six thousand years of history of Iran. The task of Ferdowsi was to prevent this history from being lost to future Persian generations.
According to Jalal Khaleghi Mutlaq, the Shahnameh teaches a wide variety of moral virtues, like worship of one God; religious uprightness; patriotism; love of wife, family and children; and helping the poor.

Wednesday, February 12, 2014

Iran in Sochi

7 to 23 February 2014 Iran will be at the winter olympic of Sochi in Russia. Iran is mostly successful in summer olympics with resettling, weight lifting, and Taekwondo however Iran would be having its Largest team ever among all the winter olympics with five athlete in the two sport of Alpine skiing and Cross country skiing. Saveh Shemshaki, Mohamad Kiadarbandsari and Forough Abbasi will be the three athlete representing Iran in Alpine and for cross country Sattar Reza Seiied and Farzaneh Rezasoltan will represent their country.

The 2014 Winter Olympics, officially the XXII Olympic Winter Games, or the 22nd Winter Olympics, is a major international multi-sport event being held in Sochi, Russia.

A total of 98 events in 15 winter sport disciplines are being held during the Games. A number of new competitions—a total of 12 accounting for gender—are being held during the Games.

The 15 sport present during the winter Olympics can be viewed here in the official website of the Olympic games.

As a Persian living outside the country many people ask me if there is snow in Iran and if it gets cold or do people ski in Iran. I have to say I personally love skiing and I consider it my first sport since I started it at the age of 5. The capital City of Iran, Tehran is so rounded by two mountain range, Alborz and Zagros. This city has 6 ski resort around it which makes it have warm summers and cold winters.

Iran has been to 16 summer olympics and 10 winter olympics, in many summer olympics we have been successful mostly in Wrestling, Weightlifting and Taekwondo however we have never one any position in winter olympics. Over all we have one 60 medals; 15 gold, 20 silver and 25 bronze. From the 15 gold medals 13 of them are earned in Wrestling and Weightlifting. In the previous summer olympics Iran had the rank of 17 among countries and won 4 gold medals, one in weightlifting which was for the heaviest weight lifter of the olympic and 3 in wrestling which one of them was the heaviest weight champion of the world. Sadly one of the mans who brought glory and pride to country quit from being a professional athletes, Behdad Salimi.

At the 2010 World Weightlifting Championships Salimi won the gold medal in the +105 kg category. Salimi won gold again in the +105 kg category at the 2010 Asian Games with a 205 kg snatch and a 235 kg clean and jerk.Salimi won the gold medal at the 2011 World Weightlifting Championships in Paris, France on November 13, 2011, and set a new snatch world record of 214 kg.Salimi became the 2012 Olympic gold medalist in the +105 kg category on August 7, 2012 with a 208 kg snatch, a 247 kg clean and jerk for a total of 455 kg.

After 2012 London Olympic games he and other Olympic medalists of Iran protested against Iran's national weightlifting team head coach Kourosh Bagheri for using offensive language in training and declined to attend national team exercises. As a result of a heavy argument on a live TV debate between Salimi andKourosh Bagheri, the Iranian Weightlifting Federation dismissed Salimi and other weightlifters, who later on sided by Salimi in public and did not invite any of the London medalists for the 2013 Asian Weightlifting Championships and 2013 World Weightlifting Championships.

Writing about olympics and weight lifting I should mention the name Hosein Rezazadeh,Rezazadeh is a 2 time Olympic champion, 4 time World Weightlifting champion, and 2 time Asian Games champion. He is also a world record holder in the clean and jerk and total, and is widely regarded as one of the greatest weightlifters of all time. He has won the Iran sportsperson of the year award more than any other person. In total he has won 11 gold medals for different international championships.
Rezazade was also known for keeping his smile no matter what